DB Index

A database index is a data structure that improves the speed of operations in a table. Indexes can be created using one or more columns, providing the basis for both rapid random lookups and efficient ordering of access to records.
While creating index, it should be considered that what are the columns which will be used to make SQL queries and create one or more indexes on those columns.


Practically, indexes are also type of tables, which keep primary key or index field and a pointer to each record into the actual table.

The users cannot see the indexes, they are just used to speed up queries and will be used by Database Search Engine to locate records very fast.

INSERT and UPDATE statements take more time on tables having indexes where as SELECT statements become fast on those tables. The reason is that while doing insert or update, database need to insert or update index values as well.

Simple and Unique Index:
You can create a unique index on a table. A unique index means that two rows cannot have the same index value. Here is the syntax to create an Index on a table
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name
ON table_name ( column1, column2,…);

You can use one or more columns to create an index. For example, we can create an index on tutorials_tbl using tutorial_author.
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX AUTHOR_INDEX
ON tutorials_tbl (tutorial_author)

You can create a simple index on a table. Just omit UNIQUE keyword from the query to create simple index. Simple index allows duplicate values in a table.
If you want to index the values in a column in descending order, you can add the reserved word DESC after the column name.
mysql> CREATE UNIQUE INDEX AUTHOR_INDEX
ON tutorials_tbl (tutorial_author DESC)

The best way to improve the performance of SELECT operations is to create indexes on one or more of the columns that are tested in the query. The index entries act like pointers to the table rows, allowing the query to quickly determine which rows match a condition in the WHERE clause, and retrieve the other column values for those rows. All MySQL data types can be indexed.

Although it can be tempting to create an indexes for every possible column used in a query, unnecessary indexes waste space and waste time for MySQL to determine which indexes to use. You must find the right balance to achieve fast queries using the optimal set of indexes.

Most MySQL indexes (PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, INDEX, and FULLTEXT) are stored in B-trees

Differences:

KEY or INDEX refers to a normal non-unique index. Non-distinct values for the index are allowed, so the index may contain rows with identical values in all columns of the index. These indexes don't enforce any restraints on your data so they are used only for making sure certain queries can run quickly.

UNIQUE refers to an index where all rows of the index must be unique. That is, the same row may not have identical non-NULL values for all columns in this index as another row. As well as being used to speed up queries, UNIQUE indexes can be used to enforce restraints on data, because the database system does not allow this distinct values rule to be broken when inserting or updating data.

Your database system may allow a UNIQUE index to be applied to columns which allow NULL values, in which case two rows are allowed to be identical if they both contain a NULL value (the rationale here is that NULL is considered not equal to itself). Depending on your application, however, you may find this undesirable: if you wish to prevent this, you should disallow NULL values in the relevant columns.

PRIMARY acts exactly like a UNIQUE index, except that it is always named 'PRIMARY', and there may be only one on a table (and there should always be one; though some database systems don't enforce this). A PRIMARY index is intended as a primary means to uniquely identify any row in the table, so unlike UNIQUE it should not be used on any columns which allow NULL values. Your PRIMARY index should be on the smallest number of columns that are sufficient to uniquely identify a row. Often, this is just one column containing a unique auto-incremented number, but if there is anything else that can uniquely identify a row, such as ""countrycode"" in a list of countries, you can use that instead.

Some database systems (such as MySQL's InnoDB) will store a table's records on disk in the order in which they appear in the PRIMARY index.

FULLTEXT indexes are different from all of the above, and their behaviour differs significantly between database systems. FULLTEXT indexes are only useful for full text searches done with the MATCH() / AGAINST() clause, unlike the above three – which are typically implemented internally using b-trees (allowing for selecting, sorting or ranges starting from left most column) or hash tables (allowing for selection starting from left most column).
Where the other index types are general-purpose, a FULLTEXT index is specialised, in that it serves a narrow purpose: it's only used for a "full text search" feature.

Similarities:
All of these indexes may have more than one column in them.
With the exception of FULLTEXT, the column order is significant: for the index to be useful in a query, the query must use columns from the index starting from the left – it can't use just the second, third or fourth part of an index, unless it is also using the previous columns in the index to match static values. (For a FULLTEXT index to be useful to a query, the query must use all columns of the index.)

All of these are kinds of indices.
primary: must be unique, is an index, is (likely) the physical index, can be only one per table.
unique: as it says. You can't have more than one row with a tuple of this value. Note that since a unique key can be over more than one column, this doesn't necessarily mean that each individual column in the index is unique, but that each combination of values across these columns is unique.

index: if it's not primary or unique, it doesn't constrain values inserted into the table, but it does allow them to be looked up more efficiently.

fulltext: a more specialized form of indexing that allows full text search. Think of it as (essentially) creating an "index" for each "word" in the specified column.

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